Vinyl records have made a comeback in recent years, and with that comes the need for quality turntables and phono cartridges. But how long do these cartridges last before needing to be replaced?
The answer is not as simple as you might think. There are many factors that can affect the lifespan of a phono cartridge, from the quality of the stylus to the condition of your records.
In this article, we’ll explore the different components of a phono cartridge and how they can impact its longevity. So, if you’re a vinyl enthusiast or just curious about the inner workings of turntables, keep reading to learn more about whether or not phono cartridges wear out.
Do Phono Cartridges Wear Out
Phono cartridges are made up of several components, including a magnet, coil, body, cantilever, and most importantly, the stylus. The stylus is a tiny needle that rests against the record while it spins on the platter. As it works its way through the grooves on the vinyl, vibrations are created and converted into electrical signals.
While some parts of a phono cartridge are durable and long-lasting, such as the magnet and coil, the stylus is not. It is made from special stones like diamonds or sapphire and can wear out over time. Manufacturers typically state that their styluses last around 150 to 200 hours of playtime, depending on the quality.
However, other factors can also impact the lifespan of a phono cartridge. Rubber components in the suspension can harden over time and degrade quickly in polluted areas with high levels of ozone. Dust on the grooves of records can also affect the stylus and cause it to wear out sooner than expected.
The brand and model of the cartridge can also affect how long it lasts before needing to be replaced. Entry-level cartridges built into most turntables will not last as long as more expensive models meant to be replaced periodically (every 5-10 years).
Ultimately, how long a phono cartridge lasts depends on several factors. The essential factor is the material of the stylus and needle. Diamond styli last longer than their steel and sapphire counterparts, and models using moving magnet technology generally last longer than those using moving coil technology.
The Components Of A Phono Cartridge
A phono cartridge is made up of several components that work together to produce high-quality audio. The most critical component is the stylus, which is a tiny needle that rests against the record while it spins on the platter. Other components include the magnet, coil, body, and cantilever.
The magnet is mounted on the cantilever and placed between the set of coils in a moving magnet (MM) cartridge. The cantilever moves by following the tracks of the record, and hence the magnet moves with it. As the magnet gets closer to one of the coils, the magnet’s magnetic field induces a current in the coil, generating electrical energy in the coil. MM cartridges have high output and are less costly to manufacture since the coils can be machine-wound.
The coil is responsible for converting mechanical vibrations into electrical signals. In a moving coil (MC) cartridge, the coils are attached to the cantilever and move with it. As the stylus moves through the grooves of the record, it causes the cantilever to move, which creates an electrical signal in the coils.
The body of a phono cartridge houses all of these components and is responsible for holding them in place. The body can be made from various materials such as plastic or metal and can affect the sound quality of the cartridge.
The cantilever connects the stylus to the body of the cartridge and transfers vibrations from the stylus to the coils. It is typically made from aluminum or boron and can affect the overall sound quality of the cartridge.
How The Stylus Quality Affects Lifespan
The quality of the stylus is a crucial factor in determining the lifespan of a phono cartridge. As mentioned earlier, the stylus is the part of the cartridge that comes into contact with the record grooves and produces sound. It is made from special stones like diamonds or sapphire, which are highly durable and long-lasting.
The quality of the diamond used in the stylus can also affect its lifespan. High-end diamond styli often last almost 2,000 hours before completely wearing out, while lower-quality diamonds may wear out after only a few hundred hours of use.
Another factor that affects stylus lifespan is the tracking force. Too much weight on the stylus can damage both the stylus and the records it plays, causing it to wear out faster. Properly adjusting the cartridge’s weight can help extend the lifespan of the stylus.
Record cleaning is also essential to keep dust from transferring to the stylus, preserving its condition and prolonging its lifespan. Dropping the stylus onto the record can blunt its tip, causing it to wear out faster. It’s essential to handle the stylus with care and always put a fresh needle into a used turntable before using it to get the most out of your needle and avoid damaging your records.
Finally, brushing the stylus after every use can remove any unwanted tracking distortion and help maintain its condition. In summary, the higher quality of the diamond used in the stylus, proper tracking force adjustment, record cleaning, careful handling, and regular brushing can all contribute to prolonging a phono cartridge’s lifespan.
The Impact Of Record Condition On Cartridge Wear
The condition of the records being played can also impact the lifespan of a phono cartridge. Dirty records with dust and grime build-up can cause the stylus to wear out faster than usual. The constant exposure to dirt can wear down the needle’s surface and create jagged edges, which can then damage the grooves in the record. This creates a feedback loop of damage, dirt, and decay that can rapidly damage the needle.
Scratched records can also affect the stylus, although not as much as dirty records. However, scratched records have often been in use for longer periods and have accumulated more dirt, which can cause additional wear on the stylus.
It’s important to note that not all styluses are created equal, and some may be more durable than others. However, regardless of the type of stylus being used, it’s essential to keep records clean and free of dust and debris. Regular cleaning and maintenance of both the cartridge and records will help extend the lifespan of a phono cartridge.
Proper Maintenance And Cleaning Techniques To Extend Lifespan
To extend the lifespan of your phono cartridge and stylus, proper maintenance and cleaning techniques are crucial. Here are some tips to help you take good care of your cartridge and stylus:
1. Clean Your Records: Clean vinyl records are essential for preserving the lifespan of your stylus. Use a carbon fiber brush to dry clean your records before and after each playback. Occasionally, you may need to wet clean your records to remove dirt and grime buildup.
2. Avoid Playing Damaged or Dirty Records: Playing damaged or dirty records can accelerate the wear and tear of your stylus. Clean any used records before playing them on your turntable.
3. Clean Your Stylus Regularly: Dry clean your stylus after each record, and occasionally use a specially formulated stylus cleaning solution to remove stubborn dirt.
4. Properly Set Up Your Turntable: Make sure your turntable is correctly configured with proper anti-skate, azimuth, and tracking force settings. Poorly configured settings can contribute to excessive or uneven wear on your stylus.
5. Use the Right Cleaning Fluid: When cleaning your stylus tip, use a good stylus cleaning fluid and brush. Avoid using anything containing isopropanol alcohol, as it can dissolve the glue holding the stylus needle into the cantilever.
6. Clean Your Stylus After Each Use: Ideally, you should clean your stylus after each use with a cleaning brush specifically designed for the stylus. Wipe the tip of the stylus from back to front, avoiding wiping from side to side.
By following these maintenance and cleaning techniques, you can extend the lifespan of your phono cartridge and stylus up to 1000 hours without degradation of performance. Remember always to take good care of your cartridge and stylus, as they will take good care of your vinyl records in return.
Signs That Your Phono Cartridge Needs Replacement
Despite the varying factors that can affect the lifespan of a phono cartridge, there are some clear signs that indicate when it’s time for a replacement. Here are some of the most common indicators:
1. Audible distortion: If you begin to hear more distortion, crackling, static, or overall fuzziness in your records than usual, it’s time to check your turntable’s stylus. These issues can indicate that your stylus is old, damaged, or worn out.
2. Skipping or jumping: If you notice that your stylus is skipping or jumping out of the record grooves when playing, it’s a clear sign that it needs replacing. This issue can be caused by a misshapen or crooked stylus or a damaged cartridge.
3. Lack of bass and treble: If you notice that your music sounds thin or missing in bass when played, it could be a sign that your needle is worn and needs to be replaced. Check to see whether your EQ settings are normal.
4. Visible damage: Check for any sign of visible damage, such as jagged edges or bending of the needle head. If you are aware that the shape of your needle head was rounded, but is now pointed, replace the stylus immediately and do not use it in light of the physical damage that can occur.
5. Overused stylus: If there is black residue stuck to the point of the needle, it may be a sign that the stylus was overused and not properly maintained. It may need a proper cleaning, or in worst case scenarios, it will need to be replaced.
6. Unbalanced cantilever: Over time, the pivot and magnets holding the cantilever in place can become out of line. Because of this, the stylus could be resting heavier on the record. If this occurs, you’re able to readjust the phono cartridge into an ideal position.
Comparing The Lifespan Of Different Phono Cartridge Types
When it comes to the lifespan of phono cartridges, the type of cartridge can also play a significant role. The most common type of stylus shape is the conical or spherical stylus, which is easy and inexpensive to produce. However, these styli may wear out faster than other shapes due to their slightly rounded tip. They may not be able to read the more nuanced details in record grooves, leading to a loss of sound quality.
Elliptical styli are a step up from conical styli due to their sharper angle, which allows them to read record grooves more accurately. As a result, they offer more detail and less distortion than conical styli. The Audio-Technica VM520EB is an excellent value-priced upgrade to an elliptical stylus.
The line contact stylus is shaped to optimize high-frequency response and minimize abrasion. However, this stylus can amplify surface noise if records are already worn. The Shibata stylus, named after JVC engineer Norio Shibata who pioneered the design in 1972, is an example of a line contact stylus.
Several high-end cartridges use a MicroLineTM stylus design that closely mimics the shape of the cutting head used to create record pressings at the factory. This design reads information that other styli cannot, producing very detailed and accurate sound.
In general, diamond styli last longer than steel and sapphire counterparts. Moving magnet cartridges generally last longer than moving coil cartridges due to their simpler construction. However, higher-end moving coil cartridges can last longer than entry-level moving magnet cartridges.
Ultimately, the lifespan of a phono cartridge depends on several factors, including the material used for the stylus and needle, the type of cartridge, and how well it is maintained. Keeping records and styli clean and handling them gently can help prolong their lifespan.